MUS277: Principles of Music Education

Fall 2020

Purpose of the Course

MUS 277: Principles of Music Education serves as a preparation to music education methods classes. Topics will include philosophy of music education, student learning in music, characteristics of appropriate learning environments, curriculum and its underpinnings, effective instructional formats, measuring and evaluating student learning.

Course Outline

Unit 1: Developing a Professional Philosophy

            Project: Your Musical Journey in Three Songs


Unit 2: Learning Environments and Organizing Instruction

            Project: Prepare a pedagogical analysis for teaching a piece of music or a musical activity to a selected class or ensemble


Unit 3: Student Learning in Music

            Project: Write summaries of three research articles on child development and music


Unit 4: The Content of Instruction

            Project: Present on selected curricular approaches (group project)


Unit 5: Managing Instruction

            Project: Describe a classroom management scenario that you observed in your field placement


Unit 6: Assessing Student Learning

            Project: Develop two methods for assessing student learning in music 

Internship/Field Work

In addition to participating in the class on campus, all students will engage in concurrent internship-field work in a school setting. More information about this requirement will follow during the first couple of weeks of class.


You will visit the classroom of your cooperating teacher (CT) six times this semester.  During at least two of those visits, you will teach a brief lesson.  You will be assigned to a small group for the observations/teaching.  At the first visit, work with your cooperating teacher to determine the dates you will do your teaching.  The dates of your visits will coordinate with each course unit.  You will complete a brief written assignment at each visit.  (Note-when the assignment is to ask the teacher about a topic, you are expected to summarize their responses and turn them in).  The assignment is due (turned in to Dr. Robinson via email) immediately after the teaching observation.


You may use the following questions to inform your response: 


3 Reflective Questions

  1. What went well?
  2. What did not go well?
  3. What would you do differently if you were the teacher, and could teach the lesson/class again?


Unit 1—Developing a Professional Philosophy

1. Describe the music program’s mission statement/philosophy as explained in a course syllabus or other curriculum materials.

2. Ask the teacher to describe his/her teaching philosophy.

3. From your observations, identify several teaching goals you believe the teacher espouses.  Write them down and discuss with your CT.


Unit 2—Learning Environments and Organizing Instruction

1. Describe the classroom setup.  Which items are placed to facilitate student learning?  Which items seem to get in the way?

2. Look at your CT’s lesson plan.  Make a copy of one page of the teacher’s planning book.

3. Ask how your CT plans for instruction.


Unit 3—Student Learning in Music

1. Identify three issues of child development observed in the classroom.

2. Ask the teacher to describe what is done to accommodate special education students.

3. From observations, identify three ways in which the teacher molded instruction to meet specific student needs.


Unit 4—The Content of Instruction

1. Describe which curricular approach your CT uses.  Find and make a copy of the method book cover.

2. Ask your CT why he/she selected the method in use.

3. If your CT does not use a specific method, ask how he/she determines the content of instruction. 


Unit 5—Managing Instruction

1. Describe a classroom management issue you observed.  How did the teacher address it?

2. Ask your CT about his/her philosophy on classroom management.

3. Find out the school policy for classroom management.  Make a copy of it.


Unit 6—Assessing Student Learning

1. Ask your CT to describe how student progress is measured and/or evaluated (two different things!).

2. Make a copy of any assessment papers your CT uses.  Learn how they are used by the student and teacher.


Attendance and Participation

Class members are expected to attend all classes, as learning in the class is enhanced by the attendance of all.  More than two absences will result in the course grade being lowered .5 and .5 for each two additional absences beyond that. There is no such thing as an excused or unexcused absence, so save your absences for when you really need them, like when you are sick.  I appreciate knowing why you miss a class, but notification is not required.  If you have an unusual situation that results in extended absence, please contact me so that I am aware of the situation and can make arrangements to meet your instructional needs. 


There will be frequent class activities based on the readings that require participation, and students are expected to be prepared.  This means doing the require reading every day before class so that discussion can be as meaningful as possible.  Every student is expected to actively participate in class discussions and activities, by offering comments on class discussions and extending and enhancing the comments of others. Failure to do so will be considered in the grading process.


Student work must be turned in on time.  Grades on individual assignments and projects will be reduced by .5 for every day that they are late. You may revise written work once before the end of the term, attaching copies of previous versions, so long as the original assignment was handed in on time.


Class participation and discussion 40%

Unit projects 60%   (each project worth 10%)


Percentage to Grade point

≥ 90 4.0

85 – 90 3.5

80 – 85 3.0

75 – 80 2.5

70 – 75 2.0

65 – 70 1.5

60 – 65 1.0

<60 0


Failure to complete any portion of the above requirements may result in failure of the course.


Academic Honesty

Article 2.3.3 of the Academic Freedom Report states that “The student shares with the faculty the responsibility for maintaining the integrity of scholarship, grades, and professional standards.” In addition, the School of Music adheres to the policies on academic honesty as specified in General Student Regulations 1.0, Protection of Scholarship and Grades; the all-University Policy on Integrity of Scholarship and Grades; and Ordinance 17.00, Examinations.  (See Spartan Life: Student Handbook and Resource Guide and/or the MSU Web site: Therefore, unless authorized by your instructor, you are expected to complete all course assignments, including homework, lab work, quizzes, tests and exams, without assistance from any source. You are not authorized to use the Web site to complete any course work in MUS277. Students who violate MSU rules may receive a penalty grade, including but not limited to a failing grade on the assignment or in the course.


For more information, go to:


Accommodations for Disabilities

Students with disabilities will need to contact the Resource Center for Persons with Disabilities (353-9642 or and work with me to arrange any needed accommodations, per the Center's recommendation. It is the student’s responsibility to register with the RCPD and to inform faculty of any special accommodations needed by the student as determined by Disability Specialists at the RCPD; Faculty do not determine accommodations.


College of Education and Advanced Standing Notes

The College of Education’s Professional Criteria for Progression to Student Teaching require that all education students be reliable in terms of attendance and punctuality. Students with unexcused absences and frequent tardiness may be withdrawn from the teacher certification program.


Those who have not been accepted into the Music Education and wish to be a Music Education major will go through the Advanced Standing process as a part of this class.  This will include the gathering of academic data, completion of an application, and an interview with a member of the Music Education faculty.  Information about applying to the College of Education will also be communicated as a part of this class.


Sexual Harassment Policy

As your teacher, I wish to create a positive, comfortable learning environment. Each student has different boundaries emotionally and physically. The teaching of music has traditionally embraced a wide range of methods and techniques that may include physical contact between teacher and learner with the arms, shoulders, abdomen, head, neck and lower back. There is no music teaching technique that requires and physical contact with the student’s breast/chest, pubic area or buttocks. I will not initiate physical contact with a student without express permission from the student, and any such contact would be for pedagogical purposes only. We can also discuss any pedagogical interventions with which you are personally uncomfortable, and seek alternative strategies to accomplish these goals. Further, anatomical and physiological discussions may occur during the course of instruction, given the nature of music teaching and learning. These discussions should never include anything that is inappropriately sensual, sexual or suggestive in nature.


Should you believe that any violations of this policy occur in or out of class, you are encouraged to contact the following resources:

  1. Office of Student Affairs, Student Judiciary: 432-2471
  2. Dean of the College of Music: 355-4583
  3. Office for Inclusion and Intercultural Initiatives: 432-3898

Basic Needs Security

Any student who has difficulty affording groceries or accessing sufficient food to eat every day, or who lacks a safe and stable place to live, and believes this may affect their performance in the course, is urged to contact the Associate Dean for support. Furthermore, please notify me if you are comfortable in doing so. This will enable me to best provide any possible support or resources.


Tentative Course Calendar and Topics





1. Understand the value of a professional philosophy of music education.

2. Compare aesthetic and praxial philosophies and apply them to music teaching.

3. Understand the non-musical values of music education.

4. Write a personal professional philosophy.


Unit 1 Project: Your Musical Journey in Three Songs

In an effort to get to know each of you a bit better, I’d like each of you to share with me 3 songs or compositions that you feel best tell the story of your musical life. These could be songs your parents sang to you when you were young, your favorite pieces from middle or high school orchestra, chorus or band, songs you listened to on the radio, a song from your favorite artist’s CD, a song you wrote for a friend or loved one, or even a music video that you really like. The style could be orchestra, popular, jazz, rock, hip-hop, ska, opera—anything is fair game. The goal here is to think about how particular pieces of music have influenced your life, and your decision to become a music educator.

One way for us to share these songs will be by using Spotify. Here's a link to a brief video tutorial on how to create and share a Spotify playlist for those unfamiliar with the application:


You can also use YouTube videos of your songs if that works better for you or your song choices.

Along with links to your songs, please share why you selected each of your 3 choices. Tell me a little bit about why each selection was so important to you: what meaning this music played in your musical journey so far, and what's special about each one of your choices.

To submit your assignment, just send me an email with links to your Spotify playlist or YouTube videos for each song, and your brief description of each song.

I'll get the ball rolling--here are my 3 songs:

• Feels So Good, by Chuck Mangione

I first heard this song when I was in middle school, shortly after I started playing the trumpet. To back up a tad, I was a bad trumpet player when I started out--really, horrifically bad. How bad? There was 1 trumpet in my beginning band by the end of the year--me!--and I played 3rd trumpet. 2 sax players transposed and played the 1st and 2nd parts. Really bad.

So when I first heard Chuck Mangione it was a revelation. Here was a guy who--let's face it--was not a great player. He had a fuzzy tone, played out of tune at times, and chipped a ton of notes. And yet, I loved his playing. And I somehow could tell, even in 7th grade, that he was a far better musician than he was a player. It was obvious that Mangione was a wonderful composer, a great improviser and an exciting performer. He just wasn't a virtuoso trumpeter.

This gave me hope. Hope that I could someday be a good musician, and that I wouldn't necessarily be held back by my trumpet playing ability.

Years later I played with Chuck's brother, Gap, on a gig, and wound up at the same music school, Eastman, where Chuck and Gap learned, and where Chuck eventually taught. I still feel a special bond for his music, and will always have a soft spot in my heart for this song.

Pay special attention to the first 3 notes of this tune. . .quiz later!

•Misteltoe and Holly, by Frank Sinatra

This one is just for fun. I love Christmas. Love everything about it. Love the snow, the cold, the food, and especially the music. Some people say they hate when Christmas music comes on the radio before thanksgiving. I would love it played 12 months a year. And there's something about Frank's version of this simple, silly little Christmas tune that conjures up images of snuggling on the couch with my kids and the dog, next to a crackling fire, watching bad Christmas movies on tv. When I hear this tune, it's Christmas time. Ahhh....

•First movement, Sym. #2 ("Romantic"), by Howard Hanson

I guess I'm a closet Romantic, because I love this guy's music. Hanson was the first Dean of the Eastman School, and a well-known American composer. His music is big, lush and broad, and just speaks to my sentimental side. I also was thrilled to find a lot of his stuff arranged for band, and played a lot of it when I was teaching. I always feel like Hanson is my special secret, as not many teachers know his work very well, and its worth knowing.

Listen again to the first 3 notes of this excerpt. Hear anything interesting?

Click the link below to listen to my 3 songs. . .


Due Date: Sep 16


Schedule of Topics and Assignments: 


W Sep 2 What is philosophy?  Why is it important?  

Music making (if possible)

Discuss Unit Project


F Sep 4 

What is music and what should be music education? 


Jorgensen, “Philosophy and the Music Teacher: Challenging the Way We Think”

Elliott, “Behind the Budget Crisis, a Crisis of Philosophy”

Rogers, “Why Teach Music? A Historical Overview of Aesthetics”

Mark, “The Evolution of Music Education Philosophy from Utilitarian to Aesthetic”




W Sep 9  Art and Feeling: Music as Doing

            Readings: “Facing the Risks of the ‘Mozart Effect’”

                        “The Other Mozart Effect:  An Open Letter to Music Educators”

            Assignment:  Read and think about the advocacy case study; we will have a class debate.


F Sep 11  Non-musical Values of Music Education

            Readings:  “A Stronger Rationale for Music Education”


M Sep 14  Philosophy and Advocacy:  The relationship between the two


W Sep 16  Class debate on Unit 1 Advocacy Case Study; Unit 1 Project due






1.  To learn how to design a music room that facilitates student learning.

2.  To learn how to use a variety of questioning techniques to stimulate student learning and musicianship.

3.  To develop approaches for motivating student learning through the use of feedback.

4.  To consider the pros and cons of competition and cooperation in music learning.

5.  To demonstrate the ability to plan for some level of music instruction and explain the rationale for the instructional sequence.


Unit 2 Project:  Preparing for Student Learning

Choose an ensemble or classroom setting at any level of instruction from preschool through high school with which you have familiarity. You may want to choose the setting in which you are working for your internship, but this is not required. Select a piece of music (or a musical activity) to teach to the class/ensemble and draft an outline of a pedagogical analysis for the teaching/learning interaction you have selected; consider the following guiding questions:


Draft a webbed organizational structure for a piece of music that addresses the most salient musical issues embodied in the work. Consider the following guiding questions:


1.     What is the piece about?

a.     Information about piece, composer, arranger, period (historical frame).

2.     What are the musical “building blocks” of the composition?

a.     Information about form, harmony, voice leading, contour/line (theoretical frame).

3.     How does the music sound and feel?

a.     Information about text meaning (if applicable), mood created, phrasing (style frame).

4.     What skills or knowledge do we need to make it sound “good”?

a.     Information about pitch and intonation, breath control, idiomatic needs of particular instruments, diction (technical frame).

Other teaching or pedagogical considerations. . .

5.     What is musically unique or interesting about the work?

a.     Information about the tonal areas, overall tonality, and form.

6.     What musical concept or concepts could you teach using this composition? 

a.     Information about repetition, contrast, variation, timbre (tone color), articulation, transitions, dynamics, etc.

7.     What or where are the potential “trouble spots” in this piece, and what strategies can you think of for addressing these problems?

a.     Information about technical difficulties, awkward fingering patterns, range problems, bad notes for specific instruments in exposed places, solo passages, intonation problems, phrasing or expressive choices, transitions in tempo, texture, or style, etc.

8.     What National Standard(s) could you teach to using this composition?


After developing your web, use the table on the following page to generate a set of teaching strategies for each “bubble” on your webbed plan. Try to create teaching strategies that are primarily musical (i.e., not talking) in nature—singing, modeling on an instrument, clapping rhythm patterns, using tonal and/or rhythmic solfege, “hissing” melodic rhythms, “air band”, etc. 


Make full use of available resources, such as faculty, the library, and the Music Education Resource Room. 


Due DateOct. 2


Schedule of Topics and Assignments


F Sep 18  Unit Overview and Unit Project 2 discussion.


M Sep 21  Creating a climate that is conducive to learning

            Readings: “Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers”

                        “A Summary of Research-based Principles of Effective Teaching”  

                       “Developing Critical Thinkers in Music” 


W Sep 23 Lesson preparation and planning; Questioning techniques and critical thinking; Entry, closure, and motivation.

            Reading: “Would Better Questions Enhance Music Learning?” 

Read and think about the learning environment case study for discussion in small groups and presentation 


F Sep 25 Cooperation and competition

            Readings:  “Competition:  Is Music Education the Loser?” 

            “Cooperative Learning Revisited:  A Way to Address the Standards”

Case study discussion; Unit 2 Project due Oct. 2.






1.  Apply an understanding of children’s musical development, brain development, and special education to the refining of teaching ideas.

2.  Develop ways to apply the results of research on children to improve music teaching.

3.  Begin to become familiar with research in music education


Unit 3 Project:  Understanding Learners and the Learning Process

Choose one of the studies from the list that will be distributed at the beginning of the unit.  Find that study at the MSU library.  Using the reference list from that study, find three other related studies.  After reading a study, PLEASE put the journal back on the shelf exactly where you found it, so that other class members will be able to use it.


Read the studies and take notes on the following aspects of the article.
            a.  What was the question or questions that the researcher wanted to answer.

            b.  Who were the students studied?  (age or grade, number of students, where from?)

            c.  What did the researcher do to answer the question?

            d.  What results did the researcher find?


Write up each of the four studies, answering each of the questions above.  In addition, in the write-up for each study, suggest one teaching idea for applying the results to improve your own teaching. 


Please be sure to include a full bibliographic citation, including author(s) name(s), article title, and journal name/issue/volume/page numbers, for each cited article.


We will develop grading criteria as a class. 


Due Date: Oct 9


Schedule of Topics and Assignments


M Sep 28  Unit Overview and development of rating system for final project.  What we know about how children develop and why we care.

            Readings:  “Introduction to Music Development” from Music PlayChildren’s musical development

                        “Implications of Music and Brain Research” 

                        “Music and the Baby’s Brain:  Early Experiences” 

                        “Does Music Make you Smarter?” 


W Sep 30 Children’s musical development

            Readings: “Beyond Mainstreaming:  Dealing with Diversity” 

                        “Reflecting Cultural Diversity in the Music Classroom” 


F Oct 2  Children with special needs

            Readings: “Rethinking Religion in Music Education”

            “Sexual Orientation and Music Education”  


M Oct 5  Cultural issues in teaching

Read and think about the student learning case study for discussion in small groups on Oct 7.


W Oct 7  Case study


F Oct 9  TBD; Unit 3 Project due






1.  Understand and be able to apply the National Standards of Music Education and the Michigan Benchmarks to organize instruction.

2.  Write appropriate goals and objectives for music instruction.

3.  Working with other class members, make a class presentation on one of the major curriculum foundations in music education.


Unit 4 Project: Curriculum Foundations

With a team of two to four other class members, investigate one of the major curricular approaches in music education.  Your team will be assigned to create a presentation on one of the following methodological approaches: Kodaly, Orff Schulwerk, Dalcroze/Eurhythmics, Edwin E. Gordon/Music Learning Theory, Suzuki/Suzuki Talent Education.


On , you will make your presentation to the class.  Each presentation should include the following:

A one-page class handout that highlights the themes presented to the class 

A 2 minute biographical sketch of the main figure(s) representing the approach

A brief (3 minutes) discussion of the primary tenets of the approach, being sure to include information on the philosophy behind the approach and the major pedagogical assumptions that underlie this approach to teaching (sequencing, techniques, syllable systems used, repertoire, etc.)

A 5 minute “mock lesson” in the spirit of the method; you may choose to teach a rote song or a game, for example

Each group will have no more than 15 minutes in which to present.  Pretend that you are making your presentation—in an abbreviated version—to your future school administration or music department colleagues.


Due Date: Nov 2 & 4


Schedule of Topics and Assignments


M Oct 12  Overview of the unit. National Standards and Michigan Benchmarks:  Where did they come from and where do we go from here?

            Readings: National Standards for Arts Education

                              Michigan Benchmarks

                              Designing Curricula Based on the Standards


W Oct 14  Developing goals and objectives

            Assignment:  Write one goal and one objective suitable for any level of music instruction.  Form your curricular teams for the Unit Project.


F Oct 16 OPEN


M Oct 19  Designing music curricula


W Oct 21  Sample music curricula


F Oct 23  Readings: 

                        “The Implementation of the National Standards” 

                        “To Sing or Not to Sing”


M Oct 26  Curriculum Common Places

                          Elliott, “Music Education and Curriculum”


W Oct 28  Current Issues in Education Policy

                          Diane Ravitch, The Lost Purpose of Education Reform


F Oct 30  Project Work Day


M Nov 2   Student Presentations of Project 4; Unit 4 Project due


W Nov 4  Student Presentations of Project 4


F Nov 6  Debriefing on Curriculum Projects; Overview of Music Learning Theory






1.  To establish procedures for preventing discipline problems, managing student behaviors, intervening in discipline problems, and remediating inappropriate student behaviors.

2.  To develop and apply to case studies an understanding of discipline approaches that are developmentally appropriate for students at specific age levels.


Unit 5 Project:  Responding to Classroom Management Scenarios

Describe a classroom management scenario that you observed during your field placement this semester. Focus on one student who exhibited attention-seeking behaviors, and share the teacher’s response to this situation. Develop a classroom management plan to address this student’s behaviors, including at least 2 references to class readings.


Due Date: Nov 13


Schedule of Topics and Assignments


 M Nov 9  Unit 5 Overview: Myths About Discipline 

            Readings:  “Judicious Discipline in the Music Classroom”

    Students as people

            Readings:  “Four C’s of Successful Classroom Management”

                        “Classroom Management: Problems and Solutions” 


W Nov 11 Proactive Classroom Management: What to do when problems arise

            Readings:  “Classroom Management for Ensembles” 

            Unit 5 Project due Nov. 13






1.  To understand the purposes of and differences between measurement and evaluation in music education.

2.  To know the characteristics of and to write multiple choice and short answer test items for music.

3.  To learn about and develop rating scales for measuring student performance in music.

4.  To develop a means for implementing a portfolio system in music.

5.  To understand and apply various approaches to grading in music.


Unit 6 Project:  Developing Measures of Student Learning

Choose and complete ONE of the following:

1.  Write a music test for any aspect of music learning with at least 8 questions. Use short answer and multiple-choice questions. If your test requires listening, hand in a tape or CD of the music for the test. Accompany the test with information about whom the test is designed for (grade level and setting).

2.  Write a rating scale with at least two dimensions to measure any aspect of music performance (singing or playing an instrument) or production (e.g.. composition or improvisation). 

3.  Describe a portfolio assessment procedure for some aspect of music learning. Identify what you would want students to put in the portfolio and create a key to describe at least three dimensions of the students’ work that you would assess and how you would do it.


Grades will be based upon the appropriate application of principles of educational measurement.


Due Date: Dec 4


Schedule of Topics and Assignments


F Nov 13  Discussion of Measurement and Evaluation

            Readings:  “Music Assessment Concepts” 


M Nov 16 Rubrics & Rating Scales

Readings: “Michigan State Adjudicated Festivals” 


W Nov 18  More on Rating Scales


F Nov 20  More on Rubrics


M Nov 23 Student Writing; Portfolios and Alternative Assessment Strategies

            Readings: “Alternative Assessment Techniques for Teachers”

“Capturing Student Progress via Portfolios” 




M Nov 30  Measurement of Music Aptitudes

            Readings: “All About Audiation” 


W Dec 2  General Assessment Concepts; Grading


F Dec 4  Final Class: Everything I Know About Assessment, I Learned in Kindergarten... 

Unit 6 Project due


Click on a title or icon below to download a PDF of the selected reading. . .

GLSEN 2017 National School Climate Surve
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Unit 3 case study
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Unit 2 Case Study, p. 1
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Unit 2 Project, Toccata for Band
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Unit Project Rubrics and Rating Scales

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Recent and Continuing Initiatives and Practices in Special Education
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Equity in Music Education: Being “Schooled” on Disability
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Intro to CMP
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